Potential study on demand side management in district heating and cooling networks with decentralized heat pumps
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The present study describes the implementation of a time-of-use demand response program as applied to fifth generation district heating and cooling networks. This technology involves the exploitation of decentralised water source heat pumps coupled with thermal energy storage. The latter can be charged at higher temperature storing electricity as thermal energy. The benefit of the process depends on the economic and physical boundary conditions imposed. The scenarios presented herein compare a constant and a variable thermal network temperature control strategies adopted during the demand response program with a reference case. The results show that an increase of the thermal network temperature avoids the drop of heat pump performance during the extra-charge process and suggests that such a shift of energy input to the heat pump from the electric power grid to the thermal distribution network can achieve savings in the total bill.