Multilocus genotyping of Amylostereum spp. associated with Sirex noctilio and other woodwasps from Europe reveal clonal lineage introduced to the US.
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Sirex noctilio is a woodwasp of Eurasian origin that was inadvertently introduced to the southern hemisphere in the 1900s and to North America over a decade ago. Its larvae bore in Pinus spp. and can cause significant mortality in pine plantations. S noctilio is associated with a symbiotic white rot fungus, Amylostereum areolatum, which females inject into trees when they oviposit and which is required for survival of developing larvae. We compared the genetic diversity of A. areolatum isolated from S. noctilio and other woodwasps collected from Europe and from northeastern North America to determine the origin of introduction(s) into the United States. Multilocus genotyping of nuclear ribosomal regions and protein coding genes revealed two widespread multilocus genotypes (MLGs) among the European samples, one of which is present in the US. The other two MLGs associated with S. noctilio in the US represented unique haplotypes. These latter two haplotypes were likely from unrepresented source populations, and together with the introduced widespread haplotype reveal multiple A. areolatum MLGs introduced by S. noctilio and indicate possible multiple S. noctilio introductions to North America from Europe. Our results also showed a lack of fidelity between woodwasp hosts and Amylostereum species.