Lights and shadows in the inclusive Italian School System
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The article attempts to provide some answers to the many questions raised by Giangreco, Doyle and Suter (2012). Two aspects have been analysed in detail: 1. Research findings on pull out phenomena regarding students with disabilities and with learning disabilities; 2. Recent Italian laws for inclusive education. Pull out phenomena characterize the majority of the school care-ers of persons with disability. Furthermore, the phenomenon concerns stu-dents with learning disabilities as well, although in smaller percentages. The widespread occurrence of pull out suggests - although further research is needed in this field - the presence of a risky trend of micro-exclusionary pro-cesses within inclusive schools systems. As far as recent Italian laws for in-clusive education are concerned, a broadening of the category of students with a right to individualised learning can be observed, from disability to a much broader conceptualisation of special educational need. This can be un-derstood as a trend from integration towards inclusion, although a medical orientation is still noticeable in Italian inclusive school legislation.