Fermented Portulaca oleracea L. Juice: A Novel Functional Beverage with Potential Ameliorating Effects on the Intestinal Inflammation and Epithelial Injury
Di Cagno R
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P. oleracea L. contains high level of nutrients and biologically active compounds. Recently, lactic fermentation has been proposed as a biotechnological option to enrich the profile of biogenic compounds of Portulaca oleracea L. puree. This study investigated the capability of fermentation by selected lactic acid bacteria to enhance the restoring features of Portulaca oleracea juice towards intestinal inflammation and epithelial injury. Lactic acid fermentation markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity of P. oleracea juice, preserved the inherent levels of vitamins C, A, and E, and increased the bioavailability of the level of vitamin B2 and that of phenolics. The effects of fermented P. oleracea juice on a Caco-2 cell line were investigated using an in vitro model closest to the in vivo conditions. Fermented P. oleracea juice strongly decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species. It also counteracted the disruption of the Caco-2 cell monolayers treated with the inflammatory stimulus. We used a diversified spectrum of lactic acid bacteria species, and some effects appeared to be strains- or species-specific. Fermentation with Lactobacillus kunkeei B7 ensured the best combination for the content of bioactive compounds and the ability to counteract the intestinal inflammation and epithelial injury.