Antennal and behavioral responses of Cis boleti to fungal odor of Trametes gibbosa
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Cis boleti (Coleoptera: Ciidae) preferentially colonizes fungi from the genus Trametes that are known as important wood decomposers. The aim of our research was to investigate if C. boleti uses the chemical volatile composition of its fungal host, Trametes gibbosa, as a key attraction factor. Therefore, the T. gibbosa fruiting body volatiles were analysed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with parallel electroantennographic detection (GC-MS/EAD) using adults of C. boleti. Furthermore, we examined the behavioral responses of C. boleti to the T. gibbosa volatile compounds. The dominant component of the T. gibbosa fruiting body bouquet was 1-octen-3-ol. Other volatiles, like the aldehydes hexanal, nonanal, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and the terpene alpha-bisabolol, were present in minor quantities. 1-Octen-3-ol was released with a ratio of the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of 93:7, respectively. Electroantennography (EAG) employing C. boleti antennae yielded consistently dominant responses to 1-octen-3-ol. GC-EAD and EAG responses to pure standard compounds showed that C. boleti also perceived other host fungal volatiles. A highly significant attraction to 1-octen-3-ol was observed in behavioral tests. Female beetles were significantly attracted to the (S)-(+)- enantiomer at 10 times lower doses than male beetles. Our finding is the first direct proof that ciid beetles use 1-octen-3-ol as a key cue for host finding.