Volatile, phenolic and sensory profile of in-amphorae Chardonnay wine by mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis
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The sensory properties, the phenolic composition, and the volatile profile of Chardonnay wine made in amphorae were compared with the wine obtained in large wooden barrels (2000 L) and small toasted barrels (225 L). Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis built on the phenolics and volatiles variables allowed to group effectively the samples according to the winemaking material used. In-amphorae wines showed more abundant catechin and caffeic acid and less abundant caftaric acid and trans-coutaric acid. Condensation reactions proceeded in the wood containers leading to esterification of organic acids with ethanol and alcohols, whereas in-amphorae wines were characterized by a higher content of free phenolic acids and higher volatile alcohols. Among the volatile compounds, ramified ethyl esters contributed mostly in samples made in small toasted barrels, whereas nonbranched ethyl esters contributed more for the samples made in large wooden tanks; higher alcohols contributed more for the in-amphorae wine. The sensory analysis showed negligible differences induced by the in-amphorae vinification with respect to the wooden one. Four variables could distinguish wines made in-amphorae compared with the other containers: solvent and acetone (SA), astringent/pungency (AP), fruity (FR), and color intensity (CI). The overall approach proposed here is promising for future developments of innovative types of Chardonnay wine blends. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.