Scenarios of public energy research and development expenditures: financing energy innovation in Europe
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The aim of this study is to examine public expenditures for energy R&D in Europe and the resulting energy knowledge stock. After the first oil shock energy R&D became more and more important in Europe. The energy R&D distribution among technologies of the EU member states and the European Commission was similar in the 1980s with a strong focus on nuclear energy. Nowadays, energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies are of growing importance. The new program Horizon 2020 is expected to have an equal distribution between nonnuclear and nuclear energy R&D expenditures. The cumulative energy knowledge stock induced by public R&D expenditures amounts to approximately 36 billion EUR in 2013, whereupon the EU member states' share is more than three times larger than the European Commission's share. The study provides knowledge stock scenarios for the next years under business as usual and changing conditions. According to the scenarios, the knowledge stock will increase to 48.5-55 billion EUR by 2023. For the first time, such comparison between the EU member states' and the European Commission's R&D expenditures has been performed for a period of more than 30 years, obtaining a clear picture of the induced energy knowledge stock.
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