Putative Prostate Cancer Risk SNP in an Androgen Receptor-Binding Site of the Melanophilin Gene Illustrates Enrichment of Risk SNPs in Androgen Receptor Target Sites
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Genome-wide association studies have identified genomic loci, whose single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predispose to prostate cancer (PCa). However, the mechanisms of most of these variants are largely unknown. We integrated chromatin-immunoprecipitation-coupled sequencing and microarray expression profiling in TMPRSS2-ERG gene rearrangement positive DUCaP cells with the GWAS PCa risk SNPs catalog to identify disease susceptibility SNPs localized within functional androgen receptor-binding sites (ARBSs). Among the 48 GWAS index risk SNPs and 3,917 linked SNPs, 80 were found located in ARBSs. Of these, rs11891426:T>G in an intron of the melanophilin gene (MLPH) was within a novel putative auxiliary AR-binding motif, which is enriched in the neighborhood of canonical androgen-responsive elements. T→G exchange attenuated the transcriptional activity of the ARBS in an AR reporter gene assay. The expression of MLPH in primary prostate tumors was significantly lower in those with the G compared with the T allele and correlated significantly with AR protein. Higher melanophilin level in prostate tissue of patients with a favorable PCa risk profile points out a tumor-suppressive effect. These results unravel a hidden link between AR and a functional putative PCa risk SNP, whose allele alteration affects androgen regulation of its host gene MLPH.
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