90-Day Mortality after Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer: Prognostic Factors in a Multicenter Case Series
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OBJECTIVES: To identify preoperative risk factors for 90-day mortality and to validate existing nomograms in a multicenter series of patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 90-day mortality in 475 patients following RC and urinary diversion at 2 Italian institutions and validated Aziz and Isbarn nomogram. Univariable logistic models assessed the predictive ability of operative volume, age at intervention, gender, body mass index, carcinoma in situ at transurethral resection of the bladder, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) score, Charlson Comorbidity Index, clinical stage and pathological stage (TNM). RESULTS: Of the total number of patients, 387 of them (81%) were male. The median age at RC was 71.8. The most frequent ASA score was 2 (53%). Twenty-five deaths occurred within 90 days (5.3%), all among patients who had undergone RC and incontinent urinary diversion. Risk was higher in patients with advanced disease (OR 2.4); moreover, 90-day mortality odd in 70-79-year-old patients was 13 times higher than those of younger patients (<70). Predictive accuracy using Isbarn's and Aziz's nomogram were 67 and 71%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our multicenter study confirmed the moderate predictive value of the Aziz nomogram. Larger studies are needed to improve on existing nomograms with the aim of enhancing preoperative counseling.