Biomarkers defining the metabolic age of red blood cells during cold storage
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Metabolomic investigations of packed red blood cells (RBCs) stored under refrigerated conditions in saline adenine glucose mannitol (SAGM) additives have revealed the presence of 3 distinct metabolic phases, occurring on days 0-10, 10-18, and after day 18 of storage. Here we used receiving operating characteristics curve analysis to identify biomarkers that can differentiate between the 3 metabolic states. We first recruited 24 donors and analyzed 308 samples coming from RBC concentrates stored in SAGM and additive solution 3. We found that 8 extracellular compounds (lactic acid, nicotinamide, 5-oxoproline, xanthine, hypoxanthine, glucose, malic acid, and adenine) form the basis for an accurate classification/regression model and are able to differentiate among the metabolic phases. This model was then validated by analyzing an additional 49 samples obtained by preparing 7 new RBC concentrates in SAGM. Despite the technical variability associated with RBC processing strategies, verification of these markers was independently confirmed in 2 separate laboratories with different analytical setups and different sample sets. The 8 compounds proposed here highly correlate with the metabolic age of packed RBCs, and can be prospectively validated as biomarkers of the RBC metabolic lesion.
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Paglia G; Sigurjónsson ÓE; Bordbar A; Rolfsson Ó; Magnusdottir M; Palsson S; Wichuk K; Gudmundsson S; Palsson BO (2016)BACKGROUND: Red blood cells (RBCs) are routinely stored and transfused worldwide. Recently, metabolomics have shown that RBCs experience a three-phase metabolic decay process during storage, resulting in the definition ...
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