Micro and Macro Modelling Approaches for the Evaluation of the Carbon Impacts from Transportation
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To quantify CO2 emissions from road transport, literature suggests the adoption of several alternative methods, based on transport modelling and carbon modules. Some of these methods are labelled as a micro approach and others as a macro approach. Their distinction is made according to the temporal and spatial horizons, the aim of the study and the degree of accuracy required. This paper presents these methods and discusses their appropriateness, whereby special focus is laid on the potential of the micro approach on ICT, based on a literature review of several European projects. We conclude that the adoption of the micro approach, is quite promising – mostly at the urban level, despite the computational efforts required and the technical difficulties to model driver behaviors. Thus, further research is required to overcome the numerous sources of scientific uncertainties.