Design of a Low-Torque-Ripple Fractional-Slot Interior Permanent-Magnet Motor
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Despite a strong nonlinear behavior and a complex design, the interior permanent-magnet (IPM) machine is proposed as a good candidate among the PM machines owing to its interesting peculiarities, i.e., higher torque in flux-weakening operation, higher fault tolerance, and ability to adopt low-cost PMs. A second trend in designing PM machines concerns the adoption of fractional-slot (FS) nonoverlapped coil windings, which reduce the end winding length and consequently the Joule losses and the cost. Therefore, the adoption of an IPM machine with an FS winding aims to combine both advantages: high torque and efficiency in a wide operating region. However, the combination of an anisotropic rotor and an FS winding stator causes some problems. The interaction between the magnetomotive force harmonics due to the stator current and the rotor anisotropy causes a very high torque ripple. This paper illustrates a procedure in designing an IPM motor with the FS winding exhibiting a low torque ripple. The design strategy is based on two consecutive steps: at first, the winding is optimized by taking a multilayer structure, and then, the rotor geometry is optimized by adopting a nonsymmetric structure. As an example, a 12-slot 10-pole IPM machine is considered, achieving a torque ripple lower than 1.5% at full load.