Utilization of African grains for sourdough bread making
Di Cagno R
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Acha and Iburu flours were singly subjected to sourdough fermentation with previously selected autochthonous starters. Sourdoughs were used (30%, wt/wt) as aroma carriers and acidifiers during short time fermentation with the addition of baker's yeast. Acha and Iburu sourdough breads were compared to wheat sourdough bread started with the same strains and to breads made with the same formula but using baker's yeast alone. During Acha and Iburu sourdough fermentations, starter lactic acid bacteria reached almost the same cell density found in wheat sourdoughs. Acidification was more intense. Iburu sourdough bread had the highest total titratable acidity, the lowest pH, and contained the highest levels of free amino acids and phytase activity. The values of in vitro protein digestibility did not differ between Acha sourdough and wheat sourdough breads, while Iburu sourdough bread showed a slightly lower value. Acha and Iburu sourdough breads showed lower specific volume and higher density with respect to wheat sourdough breads. Nevertheless, Acha and Iburu sourdough breads were preferred for hardness and resilience. As shown by sensory analysis, Acha and especially Iburu sourdough breads were appreciated for color, acid taste and flavor, and overall acceptability.