|dc.description.abstract||This paper aims to highlight, through model-based simulations, the possible energy consumption eduction in residential buildings, by adopting hybrid heating and cooling systems that integrate solar energy with other sources in energy retrofit campaigns. In particular, the paper shows the design and the performance assessment of a hybrid system coupled with a Multi-Family House with 5 floors and 10 dwellings. Different configurations of envelope renovation and HVAC system have been taken into account in order to give a wider overview on different scenarios. The system has been simulated in three climates (Nordic, Continental, and Mediterranean); for each climate two insulation levels have been selected for achieving two space heating demands, 70 kWh/m2y and 15 kWh/m2y. The Hybrid System solution is made out of an Air to Water Heat Pump coupled with combinations of photovoltaic field and/or solar thermal collectors. A radiant ceilings system is used to distribute heating and cooling into dwellings.
HVAC plants for the specific case have been sized and their behaviour has been simulated. Numerical results have been analysed through energy and economic performance figures: Solar Fraction, Seasonal Performance Factor, Primary Energy consumptions and Renewable Energy Fraction, investment costs, running costs, and annualized costs (calculated over the lifetime of the system). Finally, the performance of the hybrid HVAC system has been compared versus a traditional plant, gas boiler driven.||en_US