Inclusion at risk? Push- and pull-out phenomena in inclusive school systems: the Italian and Norwegian experiences
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The main objective of this article is to explore and compare research data on pull-out and push-out phenomena within inclusive school systems, discussing if and how they represent a risk for inclusion. The terms pull-out and push-out refer to situations in which some groups of students in regular schools learn in settings apart from their peers. Typically, the terms push out and pull out refer to students with disabilities or other special-education needs, but the phenomenon does not refer to these groups exclusively. Italy and Norway are among the European countries that first established inclusive school systems through laws that explicitly refer to what later was to become global inclusive education ideas. Both countries have a reputation for inclusive education and a history of addressing segregation of students with disabilities. However, in both countries, recent data have shown an increase in the removal of students with disabilities and other SEN from regular classrooms. Our aim is to describe and analyse these phenomena through national statistics and data from different independent research projects. Results indicate that, contrary to intentions, special-education-school-type solutions persist along with flexible adaptations within whole-class and group settings for all children.
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