Use of fermented milling by-products as functional ingredient to develop a low-glycaemic index bread
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Selected Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 32248 and Lactobacillus rossiae DSM 32249, isolated and identified from wheat germ, were used to ferment a milling by-products mixture. Lactic acid bacteria metabolisms improved the functional properties of wheat bran and germ, which are considered important sources of functional compounds. Wheat breads were manufactured using 15% (w/w) of fermented (and unfermented) milling by-products, and compared to baker's yeast wheat bread manufactured without the addition of milling by-products. The use of the fermented ingredient improved the biochemical, functional, nutritional, textural, and sensory features of wheat bread, showing better performances compared to the solely use of wheat flour. Protein digestibility, nutritional indexes, and the rate of starch hydrolysis markedly improved using fermented milling by-products as ingredient. Enriched bread was also characterized by high content of dietary fibre and low glycaemic index determined in vivo. This study exploited the potential of fermented milling by products as functional ingredient. According to the Regulations the bread made under this study conditions can be defined as "high fibre content" and "low glycaemic index". A number of advantages encouraged the manufacture of novel and healthy and functional leavened baked goods. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.