Manufacture and characterization of pasta made with wheat flour rendered gluten-free using fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria
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Wheat flour, which was rendered gluten-free by sourdough lactic acid bacteria fermentation and fungal proteases, was used for manufacturing experimental gluten-free pasta (E-GFp), according to a traditional process with low temperature drying cycle. Chemical, technological, structural, nutritional and sensory features were characterized and compared with those of commercial gluten-free (C-GFp) and durum wheat pasta (C-DWp). As shown through immunological analyses, the residual concentration of gluten of the hydrolyzed wheat flour was below 10 ppm. E-GFp showed rapid water uptake and shorter optimal cooking time compared to the other pastas. Despite the absence of the gluten network, the supplementation with pre-gelatinized rice flour allowed structural properties of E-GFp, which were comparable to those of C-GFp. The in vitro protein digestibility of E-GFp resulted the highest. Probably due to proteolysis during sourdough fermentation; chemical scores, essential amino acid profile, biological value and nutritional index of E-GFp were higher than those of C-DWp. The hydrolysis index (HI) of E-GFp was ca. 30% lower than that found for C-GFp. As shown by sensory analysis, the characteristic of E-GFp were acceptable. The manufacture of E-GFp should be promising to expand the choice of gluten-free foods, which combine sensory and nutritional properties.