Survey of conspecific herbivore-induced volatiles from apple as possible attractants for Pandemis pyrusana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
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BACKGROUND: Studies were conducted to identify volatiles released by apple foliage untreated or sprayed with a yeast and from untreated and sprayed foliage with actively-feeding larvae of Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott. Field studies then evaluated various combinations of these volatiles when paired with acetic acid as possible adult attractants. RESULTS: The most abundant volatiles released following herbivore-feeding were four green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and acetic acid. Nineteen volatiles were found to be released in significantly higher amounts from foliage with herbivore damage than from intact leaves. The combination of yeast followed by herbivore injury increased the levels of methyl salicylate and phenylacetonitrile compared with herbivory alone. Levels of acetic acid released were not significantly different among the four treatments. Only phenylacetonitrile and 2-phenylethanol with acetic acid caught similar and significantly more total and female moths than acetic acid alone. Moth catches with 12 other volatiles plus acetic acid were not significantly higher than with acetic acid alone, and were lower than with acetic acid and 2-phenylethanol. CONCLUSION: These data show that herbivore-injury does not create a unique chemical signal for adults to locate oviposition or rendezvous sites. Instead, moths may cue to the aromatic-acetic acid combination as a nutritional cue to locate sugary resources.