Occurrence of biogenic amines in beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum)
MetadataShow full item record
Because several groups of microorganisms are able to decarboxylate amino acids, the presence of biogenic amines (BA) can be seen as an index of the microbiological quality of the brewing process. BAs were quantified for the first time in the intermediate products and craft beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum) in a small size brewery in order to assess the possible presence of critical control points related to biological hazard in the brewing process. BA levels in beers produced exclusively from malted organic Emmer wheat were between 15.4 and 25.2 mg l–1 in the samples of light beer (Lt) and between 8.9 and 15.3 mg l–1 in double malt beers (DM) ready for consumption (the beers stored for 90 days at 1–2°C). Cadaverine and tyramine were the main BAs in the Lt and DM beers, respectively. Increased concentrations of BAs seemed to be more related to the heat treatment of the processing product during mashing and wort boiling, rather than to the fermentation process. Much lower concentrations were found in finished beers obtained from 50% malted organic Emmer wheat and 50% malted barley (up to 3.2 mg l–1) or from 30% malted Emmer wheat (up to 8.3 mg l–1). Thus, Emmer wheat malt can be a useful alternative to wheat and spelt for the production of beer with a limited content of BA, if the processing technology is kept under control. © 2015, © 2015 Taylor & Francis.