The sourdough fermentation may enhance the recovery from intestinal inflammation of celiac patients at the early stage of the gluten-free diet
Di Cagno R
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Purpose This study aimed at investigating the effect of corn, rice and amaranth gluten-free (GF) sourdoughs on the release of nitric oxide (NO) and synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines by duodenal mucosa biopsies of eight coeliac disease (CD) patients. Methods Selected lactic acid bacteria were used as starters for the manufacture of corn, rice or amaranth sourdoughs. Chemically acidified doughs, without bacterial starters, and doughs started with baker's yeast alone were also manufactured from the same GF matrices. Pepsintrypsin (PT) digests were produced from all sourdoughs and doughs, and used to assay the rate of recovery of biopsy specimens from eight CD patients at diagnosis. The release of NO and the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were assayed. Results During fermentation, lactic acid bacteria acidified and grew well (ca. log 9.0 CFU/g) on all GF matrices, showing intense proteolysis. Duodenal biopsy specimens still released NO and IFN-γ when subjected to treatments with basal medium (control), PT-digest from chemically acidified doughs and PT-digest from doughs fermented with baker's yeast alone. On the contrary, the treatment of all the biopsy specimens with PT-digests from all GF matrices subjected to sourdough fermentation significantly decreased the release of NO and the synthesis of IFN-γ. Conclusions During manufacture of GF baked goods, the use of sourdough fermentation could be considered as an adjuvant to enhance the recovery from intestinal inflammation of coeliac patients at the early stage of the glutenfree diet. © Springer-Verlag 2011.