Regioni a Statuto speciale e Regioni a Statuto ordinario: la disciplina costituzionale
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The Constitution of the Italian Republic outlines a regional State through two kinds of regional autonomies. The 15 ordinary Regions find their discipline in the Constitution, while the 5 Regions having a special statute (Friuli-Venezia Giulia (FVG), Trentino Alto-Adige/Südtirol (TAA/Südt.), Valle d’Aosta/Vallée d’Aoste (VA), Sardinia and Sicily) have special forms of autonomy. An equivalent discipline is provided for the autonomous Provinces of Trento and Bolzano. The discipline of each special Region (or autonomous Province) is included into a special Statute. The fields of competence of ordinary Regions as well as their government principles are directly regulated by articles 117-123 of the Constitution, according to a uniform model which is valid for all of them. The original system of the Constitution has been substantially modified in 1999 and 2001 by constitutional laws aimed at strengthen regional powers, insomuch as it is possible to refer to a system with federalist principles. Constitutional law n. 1/99 has given Regions the power to adopt their own Statute and has introduced the direct election of the President of the Region. Constitutional law n. 3/01 has completely reformed Part II, Title V of the Constitution: regional competences have therefore been extended. The most important source of law for ordinary Regions is the Statute (art. 123 Const.), adopted by the Regional Council through a special procedure (so-called reinforced). It regulates the form of government, the basic principles for the organisation of the Region and the conduct of its business, the right of legislative initiative, the referendum on the laws and administrative measures of the Region, the rules concerning publication of laws and the Council of local autonomies. The regional law can be adopted in the fields of State-Region concurrent competences (art. 117.3 Const.) or in the fields of Regional competences (art. 117.4 Const.), in compliance with the Constitution and with European Union Law and International Treaties or Customs. Each Special Region finds its discipline in its Statute, which settles the legislative and administrative competences, the organs and their functions. The special Statute is adopted by a Constitutional law and it is implemented by ad hoc legislative decrees, special sources of law issued by the President of the Republic upon approval by the Council of Ministers, on the request of a special joint committee. Constitutional law n. 2/01 has foreseen, even for Regions with special Statute or autonomous Provinces, the possibility to adopt a statutory law establishing: the form of government, the electoral systems, the right of popular initiative on regional or provincial laws as well as the regional or provincial referendums to repeal or propose a law (the referendum can also be advisory in nature). Finally, the regional and provincial laws are enacted in the wide subject areas listed in the Special Statutes.