Framing human and social capital through lifelong-lifewide and lifedeep learning
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Various studies explored the relationship between lifelong learning, social capital and their impact on human capital by different perspectives and disciplinary approaches. Standard literature on human capital generally considers the level of investment in education and training as an economic measure for employers and for the economy as a whole (Schultz 1960). Social capital refers to human and social resources that people derive from their reciprocal relation (Putnam 2000; Field 2010). Lifelong learning origins in policy domain rather than in the social science context; in the last 2 decades, this concept has gained momentum in the European political agenda, becoming the core concept of the educational and training policy of the last generation. The paper contributes, with an interdisciplinary approach, to define more precisely the meaning of lifelong learning practices and their contribution to building a more efficient educational and social system where both positive economic impacts and social effects are observable (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wertsch 1991; Engeström, 1995 and 2009). Drawing on a review of different bodies of literature (including topics of education, life-long learning in different contexts; social capital; social exclusion and economic impact of education) the aim of this paper is to outline a logical framework for human and social capital infrastructures (Treelle, 2010), which stresses the importance of lifelong, lifewide and lifedeep learning. On this ground, the resulting logical framework will be outlined as follows. First, we debate the development of educational opportunities in formal and non-formal contexts for a more balanced and efficient educational-training system; then we will focus attention on the importance of building solidarity networks, which reinforce subjective wellbeing, health, safety perception; finally, we will highlight the need for compensating the negative effects of socio-economic conditions of marginalization and social exclusion.