Dystrophic mineralization of the arterial fibrovascular tissue associated with a vitamin D hypervitaminosis in an 8-year-old female Alpaca (Vicugna pacos)
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Background: Prophylactic Vitamin D supplementation is a common practice in Alpaca breeding in many regions around the world. An overdosage can lead to dystrophic mineralization of soft tissues. In this paper we illustrate a suspected case of hypervitaminosis D in an 8-year-old female Alpaca. Case presentation: In June 2015, the carcass of an 8-year-old female Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was submitted to the diagnostic laboratory of the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (IZSVe) for necropsy. The animal had undergone a spontaneous abortion with uterine prolapse and delivery of the placenta, and had died shortly thereafter. Death occurred due to internal haemorrhage related to dystrophic mineralization of the left renal artery with subsequent rupture and damage of the renal hilum. During the necropsy, histopathological and serum biochemical analyses were performed. After laboratory analyses and the history of mineral and vitamin supplementation reported by the breeder, a hypervitaminosis D was suspected to be the most probable cause of the dystrophic mineralization observed in the left renal artery. Conclusions: Most of the information regarding Llamas and Alpacas comes from the South American and Australian regions. It is therefore important to provide scientific information about these animals in other regions of the world in order to have a better and wider understanding of the nutritional and environmental conditions necessary for optimal breeding. © 2016 The Author(s).