Flexible and Printed Electrochemical Immunosensor Coated with Oxygen Plasma Treated SWCNTs for Histamine Detection
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Heterocyclic amine histamine is a well-known foodborne toxicant (mostly linked to “scombroid poisoning”) synthesized from the microbial decarboxylation of amino acid histidine. In this work, we report the fabrication of a flexible screen-printed immunosensor based on a silver electrode coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for the detection of histamine directly in fish samples. Biosensors were realized by first spray depositing SWCNTs on the working electrodes and by subsequently treating them with oxygen plasma to reduce the unwanted effects related to their hydrophobicity. Next, anti-histamine antibodies were directly immobilized on the treated SWCNTs. Histamine was detected using the typical reaction of histamine and histaminelabeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) competing to bind with anti-histamine antibodies. The developed immunosensor shows a wide linear detection range from 0.005 to 50 ng/mL for histamine samples, with a coefficient of determination as high as 98.05%. Average recoveries in fish samples were observed from 96.00% to 104.7%. The biosensor also shows good selectivity (less than 3% relative response for cadaverine, putrescine, and tyramine), reproducibility, mechanical and time stability, being a promising analytical tool for the analysis of histamine, as well as of other food hazards.
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