Adverse Reactions to Gluten. Exploitation of Sourdough Fermentation
Di Cagno R
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Sourdough fermentation is one of the oldest food biotechnologies, which has been studied and recently rediscovered for its effect on the nutritional properties of leavened baked goods. Acidification, proteolysis, and activation of a number of enzymes cause several changes during sourdough fermentation that affect the nutritional quality. The degradation of cereal proteins may have important repercussions for functional features of leavened baked goods. Wheat flour digested via fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactobacilli was demonstrated to be safe for celiac patients. Moreover, it was demonstrated that proteolysis occurring during fermentation may also degrade wheat allergens, and recent findings hypothesized the use of sourdough as a tool for allowing wheat baked goods to be tolerated by subjects suffering from gluten sensitivity.This chapter focuses on the biotechnologies that use selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria or probiotics to potentially counteract the adverse reactions to gluten, and the risk of gluten contamination.
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