Architecture, technologies and challenges for cyber-physical systems in industry 4.0: A systematic mapping study
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Background: The vision of a fourth industrial revolution lately strongly captured the attention of research A Cyber-physical system (CPS) is one of the main drivers of this vision. Such system controls an underlying factory interacting with sensors, actuators and other systems creating systems-of-systems. A main point of interest is how these components are built and interconnected, i.e. the system's architecture, and how it might be improved to increase reliability and security. Aims: Unfortunately, there is no review available describing and identifying recent research status and progress for such architectures. Thus, in this systematic mapping study, we overview research on architecture for CPS in the context of Industry 4.0. Method: With an initial automatic search and through iterative refining, first results were gathered. Next, forward and backwards snowballing was performed to integrate the results, giving a final population of 213 papers. The output of this study is firstly a categorization and plot of architectural styles. Secondly, the categorization is extended to include security concerns. Results: In general, there is a tendency in proposing solutions in the fields of system and software architecture while other areas are visibly under-researched. Most proposals focus in digital representation, information management and integration of solutions. Conclusions: While a lot of solution proposals for different architectures exist, there are many fields uncovered and most of the solutions still lack of validation and evaluation results. Our findings highlight areas for future research and provide suggestions for investigation approaches.
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