Pseudomonas protegens CHA0 does not increase phosphorus uptake from P-33 labeled synthetic hydroxyapatite by wheat grown on calcareous soil
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SubjectP-33 labeling; Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria; Pseudomonas protegens CHA0; Phosphorus; Calcareous soil; Rhizosphere processes; Area 07; AGR/14; AGR/16
Soil microorganisms exuding organic acids have the potential to solubilize inorganic phosphorus (P), which could improve the P availability to plants growing on calcareous soil. The gluconic acid exuding bacteria Pseudomonas protegens CHA0 can solubilize P under glucose rich in vitro conditions, but evidence on the effectiveness in soil is lacking. This discrepancy in P solubilization between in vitro and in vivo is common for many P solubilizing bacteria. Possible causes for this discrepancy are rarely explored in soil using mechanism oriented approaches. Proposed reasons for limitation of bacterial P solubilization in soil are low persistence of the inoculant or low glucose availability in the plant rhizosphere. To test these two hypotheses we investigated the solubilization of P-33 labeled synthetic hydroxyapatite ((CaP)-P-33) by the gluconic acid producing P. protegens CHA0 wild type and the mutant strain CHA1198 lacking the capacity to produce this acid, in a plant growth experiment with wheat (Triticum aestivum) and an incubation experiment. Neither in the plant growth- nor in the incubation experiment solubilization of (CaP)-P-33 by strain CHA0 was detected, in spite the inoculated strain persisted in the rhizoplane of wheat and in the sterilized soil amended with glucose. No detected P solubilization in the sterilized inoculated soil suggests that glucose availability was the main limiting factor. The comparison of the results obtained from the two bacterial inoculants suggested that overall microbial activity, i.e., via protonation due to respiration, increased inorganic P mobilization. P solubilizing bacteria should be evaluated using a tracer and an appropriate bacterial control in order to reveal the mechanisms involved in increased plant available P in soil inoculated with P solubilizing bacteria.
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