Nutritional and functional effects of the lactic acid bacteria fermentation on gelatinized legume flours
De Pasquale I
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SubjectLegumes; Lactic acid bacteria; Sourdough fermentation; Nutritional profile; Wheat-alternatives
Aiming at meeting recent consumers requirements in terms of high nutritional value and functional foods, the cereal food industry has proposed the use of legumes as wheat substitutes due to the high contents of proteins with high biological value and dietary fibers. Nevertheless, legumes contain several anti-nutritional factors which may limit the bio-availability of several nutrients. In this study, an integrate biotechnological approach, combining a thermal treatment (“gelatinization”) and fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria, was set-up in order to improve the functional and nutritional quality of red and yellow lentils, white and black beans, chickpeas and peas flours. Gelatinization carried out at pilot-plant level on legume grains before milling, affected the nutritional properties of the flours by the increase of protein digestibility, resistant starch formation, the decrease of trypsin inhibitors, although negatively affecting the antioxidant activity. Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum MRS1 and Lactobacillus brevis MRS4 further enhanced the nutritional properties of processed legume flours through the increase of free amino acids concentration and protein digestibility, the degradation of phytic acid, condensed tannins and raffinose, and the decrease of the trypsin inhibitory activity and starch hydrolysis index. Moreover, fermentation also contributed to the increase of the radical scavenging activity of both raw and processed legumes.
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