The current situation of the Tyrolean Iceman
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The Tyrolean Iceman, commonly known as Ötzi, is the world's oldest glacier mummy and one of the best investigated ancient human remains in the world. Since the discovery of the 5,300-year-old Copper Age individual in 1991, in a glacier in the Eastern Italian Alps, a variety of morphological, biochemical, and molecular analyses have been performed that revealed important insights into his origin, his life habits, and the circumstances surrounding his demise. In more recent research, the mummy was subjected to cutting-edge modern research methodologies currently focusing on high-throughput sequence analysis of ancient biomolecules (DNA, proteins, lipids) that are still preserved in the mummified tissues. This application of innovative "-omics" technologies revealed novel insights on the ancestry, disease predisposition, diet, and the presence of pathogens in the glacier mummy. In this review, the most important and actual results of the molecular studies will be highlighted.