Novel insights on the functional/nutritional features of the sourdough fermentation
De Angelis M
Di Cagno R
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As one of the most traditional biotechnologies, sourdough fermentation has deep effects on rheology, sensory and shelf life attributes of baked goods. The most recent literature has also highlighted the effects of sourdough fermentations on several functional/nutritional features of baked goods. While some aspects such as the potential to lower glycemic index, increase mineral bioavailability and decrease the gluten content have been proven almost definitively, others potentialities are emerging, which deserve novel insights. This reviews reports the main evidence on the use of sourdough fermentation for salt reduction in baked goods, management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), synthesis/release of bioactive compounds, especially the metabolism of phenolic compounds, and exploitation of the potential of non-conventional flours (legumes and pseudo-cereals) and milling by-products (bran and germ). A brief description on the spiritual, cultural and functional/nutritional significance of leavened bread throughout centuries has also given.