Investigation of the nutritional, functional and technological effects of the sourdough fermentation of sprouted flours
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In recent years, recommendations on whole grains consumption have been added to the overall dietary guidelines of many countries around the world. Despite the many benefits on human health, whole grains contain several anti-nutritional factors which decrease their nutritional quality leading to a poor use in human diet. Here, an integrate biotechnological approach, combining germination and sourdough fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria, was set-up in order to improve the functional and nutritional quality of wheat, barley, chickpea, lentil and quinoa grains. Sourdough fermentation with Lactobacillus rossiae LB5, Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DE9 further enhanced the nutritional and functional features of sprouted flours by means of increased peptides, free amino acids and γ‑aminobutyric acid concentrations, and decreased phytic acid, condensed tannins, raffinose and trypsin inhibitory activity. Sensory appreciable wheat breads fortified with the fermented sprouted flours were manufactured and characterized, showing high protein digestibility and low starch availability.