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dc.contributor.authorMarastoni L
dc.contributor.authorPii Y
dc.contributor.authorMaver M
dc.contributor.authorValentinuzzi F
dc.contributor.authorCesco S
dc.contributor.authorMimmo T
dc.description.abstractAzospirillum brasilense was reported to up-regulate iron (Fe) uptake mechanisms, such as Fe reduction and rhizosphere acidification, in both Fe sufficient and deficient cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.). Strategy I plants take up both Fe and copper (Cu) after their reduction mediated by the ferric-chelate reductase oxidase (FRO) enzyme. Interestingly, in cucumber genome only one FRO gene is reported. Thus, in the present study we applied a bioinformatics approach to identify the member of cucumber FRO gene family and allowed the identification of at least three CsFRO genes, one of which was the already identified, i.e. CsFRO1. The expression patterns of the newly identified transcripts were investigated in hydroponically grown cucumber plants treated with different Fe and Cu nutritional regimes. Gene expression was then correlated with morphological (i.e. root architecture) and physiological (Fe(III) reducing activity) parameters to shed light on: i) the CsFRO homologue responsible of the increased reduction activity in Fe-sufficient plants inoculated with A. brasilense cucumber plants, and ii) the possible effect of A. brasilense in ameliorating the symptoms of Cu toxicity in cucumber plants.The data obtained showed that all the CsFRO genes were expressed in the root tissues of cucumber plants and responded to Cu starvation, combined Cu/Fe deficiency and Cu toxicity. Only CsFRO3 was modulated by the A. brasilense in Fe-sufficient plants suggesting for the first time a different specificity of action of the three isoenzymes depending not only on the nutritional regime (either deficiency or toxicity) but also on the presence of the PGPR. Furthermore, results suggest that the PGPR could even ameliorate the stress symptoms caused by both the double (ie. Cu and Fe) and Cu deficiency as well as Cu toxicity modulating, on one hand, the growth of the root system and, on the other hand, the root nutrient uptake.en_US
dc.subjectCucumis sativus Len_US
dc.subjectCu and Fe deficiencyen_US
dc.subjectFRO gene familyen_US
dc.subjectIron chelate reductase oxidaseen_US
dc.subjectAzospirillum brasilenseen_US
dc.subjectCu toxicityen_US
dc.titleRole of Azospirillum brasilense in triggering different Fe chelate reductase enzymes in cucumber plants subjected to both nutrient deficiency and toxicityen_US
dc.journal.titlePlant Physiology and Biochemistry

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