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    • Genome-wide association identifies nine common variants associated with fasting proinsulin levels and provides new insights into the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes 

      Strawbridge RJ; Dupuis J; Prokopenko I; Barker A; Ahlqvist E; Rybin D; Petrie JR; Travers ME; Bouatia-Naji N; Dimas AS; Nica A; Wheeler E; Chen H; Voight BF; Taneera J; Kanoni S; Peden JF; Turrini F; Gustafsson S; Zabena C; Almgren P; Barker DJ; Barnes D; Dennison EM; Eriksson JG; Eriksson P; Eury E; Folkersen L; Fox CS; Frayling TM; Goel A; Gu HF; Horikoshi M; Isomaa B; Jackson AU; Jameson KA; Kajantie E; Kerr-Conte J; Kuulasmaa T; Kuusisto J; Loos RJ; Luan J; Makrilakis K; Manning AK; Martínez-Larrad MT; Narisu N; Nastase Mannila M; Ohrvik J; Osmond C; Pascoe L; Payne F; Sayer AA; Sennblad B; Silveira A; Stancáková A; Stirrups K; Swift AJ; Syvänen AC; Tuomi T; van 't Hooft FM; Walker M; Weedon MN; Xie W; Zethelius B; DIAGRAM Consortium; GIANT Consortium; MuTHER Consortium; CARDIoGRAM Consortium; C4D Consortium; Ongen H; Mälarstig A; Hopewell JC; Saleheen D; Chambers J; Parish S; Danesh J; Kooner J; Ostenson CG; Lind L; Cooper CC; Serrano-Ríos M; Ferrannini E; Forsen TJ; Clarke R; Franzosi MG; Seedorf U; Watkins H; Froguel P; Johnson P; Deloukas P; Collins FS; Laakso M; Dermitzakis ET; Boehnke M; McCarthy MI; Wareham NJ; Groop L; Pattou F; Gloyn AL; Dedoussis GV; Lyssenko V; Meigs JB; Barroso I; Watanabe RM; Ingelsson E; Langenberg C; Hamsten A; Florez JC (2011)
      OBJECTIVE: Proinsulin is a precursor of mature insulin and C-peptide. Higher circulating proinsulin levels are associated with impaired β-cell function, raised glucose levels, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). ...